Babylonia originated as a city in the late 3rd millennium. This city was located in central-southern Mesopotamia, which is present day Iraq. Babylonia started when Hammurabi created an empire out of the former Akkadian Empire. The Babylonians adopted the written Akkadian language for official use and the Sumerian Language for religious use. The earliest mention of Babylon can be found from an ancient tablet reigning from the Sargon of Akkad.

Babylon Map 1

Important Events in Babylonian History
After the collapse of the Sumerian "Ur-III" dynasty the Armorites had gained control of most of Mesopotamia. From there they created a series of small kingdoms, this time became known as the "Armorite Period". Two of the most powerful city-states were Isin and Larsa. One of the city-states was established into a city-state known as Babylon. This became the most powerful of the kingdoms and would eventually form the Babylonian Empire.

Old Babylonian Period
During this period there was a lot of change between going from Sumerian to Akkadian, such as language and cultural views. Gradually the Akkadian language replaced the Sumerian language but the Sumerian language was still used as a sacred, and scientific language. This is the period where Babylon first dominated Mesopotamia under its sixth ruler, Hammurabi. Hammurabi was a great ruler establishing a central government. And providing stability to the region transforming Babylonia in the central power of Mesopotamia. Babylon Became known as a "holy city" where any legitimate ruler of Mesopotamia had to be crowned.
Old Babylonian Period

Babylonian Number System